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Thursday, June 21, 2012

Arctic Bacteria help search for life on the moon Europa

Science and techno world topic: Space
This study has been published in the journal 'Astrobiology'

Scientists have found a Canadian fjord a territory similar to the icy Europa, a moon of Jupiter. It is an icy environment and sulfur, where sulfur bacteria associated with Arctic offers clues to future missions to Europe in their search for traces of life.

Not easy to find a place on Earth where ice and join the sulfur, as is supposed to occur on the moon Europa, but has been located in the Borup Fiord Pass in the Canadian Arctic. In this area the yellow sulfurous fumes contrast with the white snow of the environment, something like that show satellite images of Jupiter.

Image: Yellow sulpher fumes in the Borup Fiord Pass (Canada). 

Now U.S. researchers have found that the sulfur involved in the life cycle of arctic microorganisms shows characteristics that can help detect biological remains in Europe. The major space agencies like NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) missions are already preparing for that purpose.

New interactive tool to study science

Science and techno world topic: Education

European researchers have developed a learning environment to help students better understand science subjects by building conceptual models. The tool is interactive and is based on the use of semantic resources.

Eight European universities, among which is the University of Madrid through its Faculty of Information Technology (UPM) have developed a new software tool that helps students build conceptual models of the scientific subjects of their study, individually or in a collaborative environment, using semantic resources.

The models facilitate the learning process. Picture: DynaLearn

At the same time, the tool allows you to store these new models and compare with other existing models in order to help students define concepts related to an area of knowledge.

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Microsoft introduced the Tablet Surface

Science and techno world topic: Computer

*The company seeks to compete with the Apple iPad

Photo: The gadget has a drop-down rear bracket keeps it up to see pictures or video, and a cover that, when opened, acts as a keyboard.

- The software giant Microsoft unveiled on Monday its Surface tablet to compete with the ubiquitous Apple iPad at a press briefing in Los Angeles. 

The executive director of the Titan computer, Steve Ballmer described the iPhone as a competitor tablet "work and play." 

"It's a community of brand new computers from Microsoft," Ballmer said. "It embodies the notion that 'hardware' and 'software' drive each other forward." 

They also have a backplate keeps it up-down to view images or video, and a cover that, when opened, acts as a keyboard. 

Thus, the tablet can be a small desktop computer. 

Supercomputers: the United States resume the top spot

Science and techno world topic: Computer
The Sequoia supercomputer designed by IBM and installed at the U.S. Department of Energy in California has reached a computing power of 16.32 petaflops. It dethrones the Japanese supercomputer K who occupied first place in the Top 500 last year.

The list of Top 500 supercomputers published twice a year in November and June has just delivered its verdict. And for the first time since June 2010, the U.S. has taken the top spot thanks to a supercomputer designed by IBM.

Photo: The Sequoia supercomputer will be used to perform simulations of nuclear weapons to avoid the use of underground explosions. 

The podium of supercomputers

Discovery of an ultrafine powder that must be present in all parts of the universe

Science and techno world topic: Space
After several years of research, the team of physicist Tom Hill of Rice University in Houston, Texas, has managed to clear up a mystery that has baffled scientists involved in analyzing data collected by the Cassini spacecraft for NASA.

In the new study, Hill and his colleagues describe and interpret what they found in the data from the Cassini: A class of hitherto unknown space particles, nanoscale grains electrically charged dust. They further believe that these particles exist everywhere in the universe.

If, as seems, are correct, this study is the first time you get to measure and analyze such particles.

Measurements of nanoscale grains were conducted during three flybys of Enceladus, a small icy moon of Saturn. Enceladus was significant interest in the scientific community in 2005 when Cassini's camera captured in visible light a series of geysers erupting near its south pole. In addition to the dust particles of ice visible, geysers spew water vapor into space, and three flybys in 2008 and 2009 gave scientists the first opportunity to make measurements inside the plumes of the geysers.

"The common perception is that space is extremely empty, but this is inaccurate," he argues sharply Hill.

The sun emits a supersonic flow of particles, known as solar wind, and this flow extends throughout the solar system as a plasma of electrons and ions, electrically charged. Hill and his colleagues have presented a description of how the plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere interacts with nanoscale grains and imparts a negative charge as they move away from Enceladus. The powder grains in the tufts are clumps of water molecules present in a wide range of sizes, from small enough to correspond to only a few sets of water molecules, to as large matching the size of conventional smoke particles.

The nanoscale grain size is so peculiar to them gives a set of features not present in other types of materials. For example, nanoscale grains are strongly affected by both gravitational force and the electromagnetic. This contrasts sharply with the case of larger particles, which are dominated by gravity, and the smaller particles and electrically charged, which are dominated by the electromagnetic force.

The Shenzhou-9 is in orbit with three astronauts

Science and techno world topic: Space

With the accuracy required for a meeting with the space station Tiangon-1, China promptly sent into space on June 16 three astronauts. The spacecraft Shenzhou-9 departed from Jiuquan at 10:37 UTC, aboard a CZ-2F / G, Jing Haipeng, who had flown in the Shenzhou-7 (the last manned mission), Liu Wang, who debuts on this flight, and Liu Yang, China's first woman astronaut. 

The rocket was taken to the drop zone, after months of preparation, on 9 June. By then, it was not yet the exact release date, or even what would the spacecraft crew. The station Tiangong-1 had fallen slightly in its orbit, so that the game should be imminent. Finally, on Friday June 15th officially became known components of the crew, and the date and exact time of launch. 

As for the details of the mission, they were also held in secret during the previous days. Only knew that Chinese astronauts would join the Tiangong, maneuver and practiced by the SZ-8 automatically, and would an undetermined number of days on board. 

During the launch day the authorities stated that in fact the SZ-9 would be coupled to the orbiting complex, the first automatically. Then two of the astronauts would enter the station, leaving the capsule in a case of emergency. If all went well, would a few hours in the Tiangong, and then be cut off from its home port to re-engage, this time manually. It is expected that after that astronauts spend at least another four or five days on board, conducting experiments and checking the operation of your new home. The mission should last about two weeks total. 

Photo:The Shenzhou launch

The launch took place without problems, and could be followed in detail by multiple cameras installed on board. The lighting was greeted by the crew of a martial, and the rest of the climb took place without incident, mixed with greetings of astronauts led to Earth. Once in orbit, after the separation of emergency tower, the four accelerators, the first and second stages, the SZ-9 separated from the rocket and minutes later successfully extended its solar panels. 

Friday, June 15, 2012

Extremely Large Telescope: Southern decides new super spies

Science and techno world topic: Space

The European Southern Observatory has given the green light for the construction of Extremely Large Telescope. Already this year, the work begins in Chile. With its gigantic 40-meter mirror, the observatory will also find planets that harbor life could be.
Garching - The European Southern Observatory (ESO) decided to build the largest optical telescope in the world. Ten member states agreed at a meeting of the ESO Council in Garching near Munich for around one billion euro project, such as ESO spokesman Lars Lindberg Christensen said on Tuesday. Four Member States would still give the green light, which is true but to be safe.
European Extremely Large Telescope (Photo): 
The construction is scheduled to begin later this year
"This is a milestone for the project," said Lindberg Christensen. From the beginning of the next decade is the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) spot among other Earth-like planets where life could emerge.
Within a year, construction will begin in Chile. Until then, even the majority of the funding will be secured. First, only the money on preparations for future location of the telescope enabled - have granted to the 14 member countries meet at least 90 percent of the roughly. 1.1 billion euro in completion costs. As important for the financing of Brazil is also the final accession to the ESO.

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

How does 3D printing work?

Science and techno world topic: Technology

Jewelry, toys, prototypes, models are just some of the applications of an industry growing exponentially. Within 10 years aims to revolutionize the manufacture.

Photo: 3d printed parts
When the mid-'80s began to circulate the first machines for 3D printing, few were willing to bet that the technology had a chance to drive a revolution in manufacturing. At the time the only available technique was the stereolithography, which consisted precisely in the print layers of photopolymer modeled through the use of ultraviolet light and gradually superimposed to form more or less faithful reproduction of a three-dimensional object. It was a slow and expensive process (a machine could cost as much as 500 thousand dollars) and therefore unattractive for large-scale application. 

Almost thirty years later the situation has drastically changed. The cost of equipment over the years has literally collapsed to the point that more than 10 years, many companies take advantage of 3D printing to build three-dimensional plastic prototypes without having to activate a process of production ad hoc. But it is only in recent years that the three-dimensional printing machines have reached such a low cost to enable a potential distribution at the household level. Suffice to say that there are companies like MakerBot who have already sold 3D printers small a price not exceeding one thousand euros (some even go below 500).

Genetic analysis of children's later fathers are living longer

Science and techno world topic: Genetics

Father and child: Long caps in the genome

Late paternity may extend the life of the young - scientists come to this conclusion after comparing genetic strands. Old fathers pass on to their children, therefore protective caps in the genes.

Washington - men who are late father bequeath to their children and grandchildren long "caps" at the ends of chromosomes. A shortening of telomeres is usually associated with aging processes in combination. It is possible that the long caps in the offspring of older fathers had a positive impact on their health or even their survival. Researchers come to this conjecture in the scientific journal "PNAS" according to the analysis of genome sequences, called telomeres.

Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes. In almost all cells, telomeres shorten with each cell division a little. The older a person, the shorter the telomeres are therefore usually its chromosomes. The shortening of these protective caps too strong, there is no cell division takes longer. In an earlier study, researchers found that older people with above-average short telomeres and a shorter life expectancy.

When the sperm cells, the situation is different: in their chromosomes, the telomeres with increasing age of the men getting longer. Presumably this is due to a particularly high activity in the testis of the telomerase enzyme - this is responsible for the construction of the telomeres.

Evidence in blood

Monday, June 11, 2012

The knowledge of the future

Science and techno world topic: Future

Seniors: The average life span could increase to 125 years

Only one thing in life is really sure that we all will die. But why we do not outwit death easy, asks the physicist Marcelo Gleiser. If it were up to him, technological advances will make this possible in the future - for example, by cloning.

[Marcelo Gleiser is a professor of physics at Dartmouth College in the U.S. state of New Hampshire. He explores the processes in the very early universe and attempts to unify the physics of elementary particles to cosmology. Gleiser is the author of the book "The Dancing Universe - Creation myths and the Big Bang."]

For us there is no more fundamental question than that after our death. We die and we know that. It is a terrifying, inexorable truth, one of the few absolute truths on which we can rely on. Other noteworthy absolute truths are more mathematical in nature, such as 2 +2 = 4 Nothing horrified the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal more than "the silence of infinite spaces", the nothingness that surrounds the end of time, and our ignorance of it.

China prepares for manned space flight

Science and techno world topic: Space

Rocket launch in June,

China pushes its own plans for the space station at full speed: Even mid-June will be sent three astronauts on their way to the space module "Tian Gong 1".The spacecraft "Shenzhou-9" and the rocket have already been put to the launch pad in the desert.

Predecessor "Shenzhou 8" ; China is driving its space program
Beijing - China is clearly right on schedule for its space program: to make the middle of June, and thus at the beginning of the targeted period, a manned spacecraft is on its way to the test module "Tian Gong 1" into orbit, as the state news agency Xinhua reported on Saturday. The spacecraft "Shenzhou-9" and the launch vehicle had been taken already on the launch pad in Jiuquan spaceport in the desert in the northwest of the country.

On board the spacecraft are expected to go three astronauts, including probably the first time a Chinese woman, as Xinhua reported, citing representatives of the national space program. The team "female astronauts could" include news agency quoted the deputy commander of the manned space program, Niu Hongguang.

The government had announced in 2010 that two pilots of the Air Force would take part in the astronaut program, but announced no further details. How long will the mission, said the government did not cooperate.

Technology to control your dreams

Science and techno world topic: Psychology

Several products promise to help you have lucid dreams

In recent years, increased enthusiasm for what is known as 'lucid dreaming', ie where the protagonist dreams know they are dreaming.
But lucid dreaming means the ability to control dreams.
Although it sounds like fantasy, the fact is that with the advance of technology, many different devices that are showing up with the idea, despite the redundancy, make the dream of controlling dreams come true.


'The wave of interest is led by technology, "explains Richard Wiseman, a psychologist who created the application to cellular Dream: ON, which in just six weeks was downloaded over half a million times worldwide.

This application claims to allow the user to decide what they dream of making a selection through the application so that it reproduces, for example, sounds of birds, which in theory would make one dream of nature.

There are many devices similar to this application, such as Singularity Experience, Dreamz, Sigmund and Lucid Dream Brainwave. But this is not exactly what would be considered a lucid dream, since the user does not really have control of sleep.

Saturday, June 9, 2012

Nuclear fusion

Science and techno world topic: Physics

Nuclear fusion in stars

The "nuclear fusion" also called "fusion" is the union of two light atomic nuclei to form a single heavier and more stable. During this fusion reaction, the mass of the core product is less than the sum of the masses of the light nuclei of origin. However, under the famous relationship established by Albert Einstein "E = mc2", the difference in mass is converted into energy. One can observe this particular fusion in stars in which a colossal amount of energy is released. The phenomenon of nuclear fusion is therefore different from that of nuclear fission in which a heavy atom splits into two lighter atoms with an energy release much lower.

The process of nuclear fusion can take place only under conditions of specific temperature and pressure. For example, in the heart of the sun the pressure is 200 billion times atmospheric pressure and temperature terrestrial plant reaches about 15 million degrees. Under these conditions the light nuclei of hydrogen (75% of the composition of the Sun) merged into helium nuclei (24%) approximately twice as heavy, creating light and heat we receive. According to calculations, 620 million tons of hydrogen are converted into 615.7 million tons of helium every second.

Diagnostic checks inside the experimental chamber of the prototype facility of the future Laser Megajoule © P.Stroppa / CEA

Nuclear fusion on Earth
Very large amounts of energy are released by the nuclear fusion process. Able to reproduce this phenomenon on Earth would theoretically satisfy the energy needs of permanently humanity. This is precisely the major issue of research on nuclear fusion "controlled". Fuels necessary for fusion are two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium, available in virtually unlimited quantities in sea water, and tritium that is produced from lithium relatively abundant in the crust.
The thermonuclear bomb - commonly called H-bomb - is now the only practical application of nuclear fusion. This was tested for the first time in 1952 in the United States in the wake of the mastery of the A-bomb (nuclear fission). Thermonuclear weapons have played a key role in the deterrent balance between the two blocs during the Cold War.
Research efforts are conducted for over 50 years to recreate the conditions of nuclear fusion in a reactor. However, mastering a controlled melting process is not yet demonstrated and the technologies and materials adapted to these extreme temperatures and pressures are not yet available for industrial use. Recreate a nuclear fusion process is much more complex than exploiting the fission chain reaction.

Friday, June 8, 2012

The Twenty agree the system of exploitation of Galileo in 2014-2020

Science and techno world topic: Space

The Galileo system was designed to rival the American GPS. Galileo will begin offering its first services in 2014, according to Commission estimates, while EGNOS, the European satellite navigation system that helps increase the accuracy of civilian GPS service is already operating.

Photo:On a drive Russian Soyuz manufacturing, a satellite of the Galileo system enlists in French Guiana.

BRUSSELS, BELGIUM (07/JUN/2012.) - Ministers of Transport of the European Union (EU) today agreed guidelines on arrangements for implementation and operation of satellite navigation programs Galileo and EGNOS between 2014 and 2020, although not yet know the budget you will over that period. 

The Council of Ministers meeting in Luxembourg, discussed and approved a partial general approach, pending the EU to agree the next financial framework shall fix the amount to be allocated to these programs, for which the European Commission (EC) has proposed the equivalent of 138 thousand 321 million pesos.

Warn of the "Rio +20" Summit: UN experts on eco-collapse

Science and techno world topic: Climate change

It is an indictment on 525 pages. Two weeks before the summit "Rio +20" in Brazil to warn UN experts strongly that the international environment makes little progress.
Rio de Janeiro - Experts from the United Nations has issued the world's environmental policy a damning testimony. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) warns in his new report, "Geo-5”, one-third of 90 major environmental goals have been achieved over the past five years, no progress. At 40 there was some improvement.
Drought in Kenya
Significant advances have given it only in four areas. Specifically, there
·         less ozone-damaging gas in the atmosphere ,
·         less pollution of the seas,
·         less lead in fuels,
·         more people with access to clean water.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Too many tourists; UNESCO is concerned about the Great Barrier Reef

Science and techno world topic: Biology

Sydney - Australia: The UNESCO has warned in strong terms that protect the Great Barrier Reef more. The industrial development of the country, the tourism and coal mining thus threaten the World Heritage List. Should not improve the situation, the reef could come off the east coast of Australia on the list of endangered World Heritage properties, the  UNESCO  World Heritage Committee wrote in a report.

The  UNESCO  has sounded the alarm: If Australia's fragile ecosystem is not more protection, it could get on the list of endangered World Heritage properties.

Australia must do more to preserve the fragile ecosystem of the damage at tourism as well as coal and gas mining. Every year about two million people visit the World Heritage List. Should be on the coast near the reef, no more new ports are built especially warns the Unesco report. Australia in February 2013 needs to submit a report now on the implementation of protective measures. Then will the UNESCO, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to decide on the listing.

Sunday, June 3, 2012

Much electricity from carbon flakes

Science and techno world topic: Electronics

Tiny flakes of pure carbon give very powerful current memory. Corresponding results presented American and Egyptian chemist in the magazine "Science". Manufactured with a simple but elegant method, the capacitor reaches its graph storage capacity of conventional rechargeable batteries, can be recharged within seconds, however.
Graphics: Copyright Science 

"Such a remarkable performance is not reached by commercial elements," the researchers write to Richard Kaner of the University of California at Los Angeles. In addition, you can fold its graphs capacitors as desired and turn. Therefore, "they might be ideally suited for use in flexible and portable electronic devices of the next generation."

ANDROMEDA GALAXY Frontal collision with the Milky Way

Science and techno world topic: Space

Our neighboring Andromeda galaxy will collide in about four billion years ago, probably head-on with the Milky Way. This resulted in an analysis presented yesterday by detailed observations of the Hubble Space Telescope. After another two billion years of the two galaxies, then new, elliptical galaxies have been formed.

This could look like in our night sky around 3.75 billion years ago.The collision with the Andromeda galaxy is then imminent. Picture:NASA, ESA, Z. Levay, R. van der Marel (STScI) and A. Mellinger

"Our results indicate statistically indicate a head-on collision between the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy," says Roeland van der Marel together at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) yesterday introduced the study. It is based on detailed observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, with which the motion of the Andromeda galaxy could be measured more accurately than ever before. Also known as Messier 31 (M31) galaxy is known at present from about 2.5 million light-years more of us. Milky Way and M31, however, draw on each other, so that they come closer to unstoppable.

Friday, June 1, 2012

Green light to test flight of Virgin Galactic

Science and techno world topic: Space

MADRID, May 31 - The company Virgin Galactic, which has offered the first tourist flights into space, has obtained permission from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of USA, for an experimental launch of a rocket propelled and a suborbital flight before their first travel with crew.

As explained by the company on its Web site with this grant will launch an internship with the suborbital craft 'SpaceShipTwo' and the carriers 'WhiteKnightTwo'.

The CEO of Virgin Galactic, George Whitesides, has indicated that this is "an important milestone that will enable the testing team and advance stage rocket powered." "This brings us to bring our customers into space," he noted.

In recent months, SpaceShipTwo and WhiteKnightTwo have made "significant progress" in its flight test program, according to noted the company, who has indicated that they have completed 80 test flights.